Social workers are on the front lines of empowering people to overcome poverty, hunger, and mental health issues. They apply the profession’s values, principles, and techniques to address social and economic problems, working toward bringing about change. Social workers imagine a world where these problems are solved, and they often lead social work program design and evaluation efforts to do so.
What is social work program design and evaluation? Effective social work programs are evidence-based and designed to deliver positive outcomes for people. Once implemented, they are systematically evaluated to measure their efficacy in delivering value to the intended populations. Social work professionals interested in leading high-impact programs should understand the roles design and evaluation play in building effective social work programs.
Social Work Program Design
Nonprofits, private practices, and governmental agencies employ social workers in various settings, including health clinics, schools, human service agencies, and hospitals. They empower people to overcome challenges by, for example, advocating for child welfare programs, helping underserved communities obtain public services, and connecting individuals and families with counseling and psychotherapy services. At the highest levels, practitioners combine their experience with critical-thinking skills to design, evaluate, and implement effective social work programs and policies.
What is involved in designing a strong and effective social work program? Key tasks include navigating administrative and organizational hurdles, such as government filing and funding, building awareness for a program, and planning for future changes.
Identifying an Issue
Whether helping people with developmental disabilities, empowering abuse survivors, or advocating for equal housing access, a social work program typically focuses on a key issue. Choosing an issue in the planning and design stages can be challenging. A good strategy to make the decision process easier includes conducting an assessment to identify needs and gaps in information and services within a community. Another factor to consider is the resources available to address those needs. Homing in on a target community’s most pressing challenges creates opportunities to make the desired impact.
Social workers research existing programs to determine an evidence-based approach for addressing the identified need. Such research pulls information from sources ranging from interviews with stakeholders to peer-reviewed journals. Social workers also rely on their professional networks to research potential approaches. Talking to people who are doing or have done similar work before yields invaluable insight into the various options’ effectiveness and can help program designers avoid potential pitfalls.
Determining a Viable Solution
A program design’s research phase provides critical data for determining a solution. Social workers rely on evidence-based decisions to create, implement, and improve social service programs. Programs that have previously been implemented and evaluated provide evidence that an approach will work, even if elements have to be adapted to fit the population being targeted with a new program. Programs with little or no precedent require more justification. Designers may want to consider a pilot program to demonstrate a new approach’s efficacy, which can be critical for securing funding.
Establishing Logistics and Partnerships
Logistical requirements will vary depending on the program. For example, arrangements for a food bank project might involve purchasing supplies, securing warehouses, finding sourcing partners, and identifying distribution partners. Creating relationships with other agencies and building a champions network is critical for promoting sustainability and attracting private funding and public support.
Raising Awareness of Program Services
Efforts to raise awareness include elevating an organization’s profile and getting word out to individuals who will be helped by the program. Strategies for raising program awareness include traditional promotional activities such as participating in community fairs, distributing printed materials, and reaching out to media outlets.
Communicating the benefits of resources available to the community being served requires carefully considering that community’s needs. For example, efforts to reach those experiencing homelessness might require canvassing efforts rather than a social media campaign. Organizers must also consider access and inclusivity issues, such as making sure materials use the languages of the demographic being served and are ADA compliant.
Securing Grants and Funding
Funding can be secured through grants awarded by federal and state governments, nonprofits, foundations, or for-profit entities. Conducting program evaluations can help current and future donors understand the program’s accomplishments and the actual costs of running its operations, highlighting a program’s efficacy and identifying areas for improvement. Conclusive evidence of program effectiveness enables potential funders to see their dollars’ impact and promotes cost-effectiveness.
Social Work Program Evaluation
Program evaluations create opportunities for continual feedback that is helpful for identifying improvement areas. Programmatic outcome evaluations typically occur after implementation, but planning for evaluations should take place in the process’s early stages. In some cases program evaluation proposals are a prerequisite for grant funding. Evaluations should be comprehensive but limited enough in scope to ensure the organization has the resources to undertake them.
Evaluating Program and Service Effectiveness
Data collection is useful for evaluating program and service effectiveness. By collecting demographic information, program coordinators learn who is being helped by a program and what benefits they receive.
One data collection method is a questionnaire. A questionnaire provides a general performance overview, asking important questions and enabling leaders to see if the program is delivering on intended outcomes. Which part of the program is working and creating the most impact? Are there unintended consequences to consider? Documenting participation from individuals in target populations is a critical component in determining if services are properly and effectively delivered and received. Other ways to collect information on services received include conducting interviews and follow-up calls with clients.
Analyzing Funds Received
Social work programs may have to meet high fiscal standards. Organizations often have to justify their costs. Funders may also inquire about alternatives to existing program components to reduce costs. Through cost evaluation methods, organizations can address how much the services and components in their programs cost and analyze them in relation to their benefits. Organizations can conduct cost studies to gather data that reveals direct program expenses, staffing costs, and the value of donated time and materials. Data analysis can be used to help stakeholders conceptualize and visualize data and analyze funds received. This method includes several steps. The first is to recruit participants to answer questions about their experiences with services used. The next step is to compile interview or questionnaire responses. The last step is to group and rate responses for use in making further funding decisions.
Measuring and Maintaining Accountability
Measuring program effectiveness helps to maintain a check on performance while holding individuals accountable for themselves and the populations they serve. Through the performance monitoring method, organizations can measure outcomes against stated objectives. For example, a program focused on helping underserved youth may measure whether students participating in their programs are achieving better results at school. Performance monitoring results are used by policymakers and donors to assess a program’s accomplishments. Regular performance monitoring can also help establish a reliable, consistent feedback mechanism to reveal insights that help leaders deliver improvements and increase effectiveness.
Build Effective Social Work Programs, and Change Lives
What is social work? It is a vehicle for creating a more equitable world. For practitioners seeking to build programs that impact lives, understanding social work program design and evaluation is a crucial skill.
Tulane University’s Online Doctorate in Social Work program prepares graduates for a path toward leadership, with a curriculum that teaches the specific critical-thinking skills and research methods needed for program evaluation. It equips practitioners with skills to help people build a better future for themselves, their families, and their communities.
An advanced degree can help prepare professional social workers to pursue leadership opportunities and provide them with the knowledge to design, implement, and evaluate social services programs. Learn how Tulane University’s Online Doctorate in Social Work program can help you get started.
Houston Chronicle, “Organizational Structure of a Social Service Organization”
Internal Revenue Service, Business Structures
Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, “Evaluation Development and Use in Social Work Practice”
Office of Family Assistance, “Implementation Resource Guide for Social Service Programs: An Introduction to Evidence-Based Programming”
The Urban Institute, “Evaluation Strategies for Human Services Programs: A Guide for Policymakers and Providers”
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Child Welfare Information Gateway, Developing and Managing Effective Programs and Services
U.S. Small Business Administration, Choose a Business Structure